Potential Future Use, Costs, and Value of Poliovirus Vaccines

Risk Anal. 2021 Feb;41(2):349-363. doi: 10.1111/risa.13557. Epub 2020 Jul 9.


Countries face different poliovirus risks, which imply different benefits associated with continued and future use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and/or inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). With the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) continuing to extend its timeline for ending the transmission of all wild polioviruses and to introduce new poliovirus vaccines, the polio vaccine supply chain continues to expand in complexity. The increased complexity leads to significant uncertainty about supply and costs. Notably, the strategy of phased OPV cessation of all three serotypes to stop all future incidence of poliomyelitis depends on successfully stopping the transmission of all wild polioviruses. Countries also face challenges associated with responding to any outbreaks that occur after OPV cessation, because stopping transmission of such outbreaks requires reintroducing the use of the stopped OPV in most countries. National immunization program leaders will likely consider differences in their risks and willingness-to-pay for risk reduction as they evaluate their investments in current and future polio vaccination. Information about the costs and benefits of future poliovirus vaccines, and discussion of the complex situation that currently exists, should prove useful to national, regional, and global decisionmakers and support health economic modeling. Delays in achieving polio eradication combined with increasing costs of poliovirus vaccines continue to increase financial risks for the GPEI.

Keywords: financial risk; polio eradication; vaccine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Costs and Cost Analysis
  • Disease Eradication / economics*
  • Disease Outbreaks / prevention & control
  • Global Health
  • Health Care Costs
  • Humans
  • Immunization Programs
  • Models, Economic
  • Poliomyelitis / prevention & control*
  • Poliovirus / immunology*
  • Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated / economics*
  • Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral / economics*
  • Risk
  • Risk Management
  • Serogroup
  • Vaccination


  • Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated
  • Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral