Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy (CAR-T) has been rolled out as a new treatment for hematological malignancies. For solid tumor treatment, CAR-T has been disappointing so far. Challenges include the quantification of CAR-T trafficking, expansion and retention in tumors, activity at target sites, toxicities, and long-term CAR-T survival. Non-invasive serial in vivo imaging of CAR-T using reporter genes can address several of these challenges. For clinical use, a non-immunogenic reporter that is detectable with exquisite sensitivity by positron emission tomography (PET) using a clinically available non-toxic radiotracer would be beneficial. Here, we employed the human sodium iodide symporter to non-invasively quantify tumor retention of pan-ErbB family targeted CAR-T by PET. We generated and characterized traceable CAR T cells and examined potential negative effects of radionuclide reporter use. We applied our platform to two different triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) models and unexpectedly observed pronounced differences in CAR-T tumor retention by PET/CT (computed tomography) and confirmed data ex vivo. CAR-T tumor retention inversely correlated with immune checkpoint expression in the TNBC models. Our platform enables highly sensitive non-invasive PET tracking of CAR-T thereby addressing a fundamental unmet need in CAR-T development and offering to provide missing information needed for future clinical CAR-T imaging.
Keywords: CAR; PET imaging; cell tracking; chimeric antigen receptor; immune checkpoint; immunotherapy; reporter gene; triple-negative breast cancer; tumour retention.
Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.