The supplementation of royal jelly (RJ) is known to provide a variety of health benefits, including anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity effects. RJ treatment also reportedly protects against bone loss, but no single factor in RJ has yet been identified as an anti-osteoporosis agent. Here we fractionated RJ and identified 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA) as a key component involved in inhibiting osteoclastogenesis based on mass spectrometric analysis. We further demonstrated free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFAR4) as directly interacting with 10H2DA; binding of 10H2DA to FFAR4 on osteoclasts inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of NF-κB signaling, thereby attenuating the induction of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1, a key transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis. Oral administration of 10H2DA attenuated bone resorption in ovariectomized mice. These results suggest a potential therapeutic approach of targeting osteoclast differentiation by the supplementation of RJ, and specifically 10H2DA, in cases of pathological bone loss such as occur in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Keywords: 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid; NF-κB (NF-κB); bone; fatty acid; free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFAR4); osteoclast; osteoporosis; royal jelly.
© 2020 Tsuchiya et al.