Localized Granulomatous with Polyangiitis (GPA): Varied Clinical Presentations and Update on Treatment

Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2020 Jul 9;20(10):56. doi: 10.1007/s11882-020-00953-1.

Abstract

Purpose of review: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a primary systemic vasculitis commonly described with the typical triad of upper airway, lung, and kidney involvement. Upper and lower airway involvement is characteristic in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis and can sometimes represent the initial or in some instances the sole manifestation. The objective of this review is to summarize the various clinical manifestations of localized disease in GPA and their treatment.

Recent findings: Sinonasal disease is seen in up to 90% of patients. Otologic and ocular involvement is also commonly seen. Laryngeal and tracheal disease although less common is associated with significant morbidity and can be therapeutically challenging. Clinicians need to be aware of these localized GPA manifestations as they may be presenting disease features in the absence of other systemic findings. Treatment of localized GPA involves both immunosuppressive and surgical interventions for specific manifestations. Collaboration between specialists including rheumatologists, otolaryngologists, and ophthalmologists is often crucial to ensure optimal outcomes for patients. This is a narrative review that provides a comprehensive overview of localized granulomatosis with polyangiitis and current treatment options.

Keywords: ANCA; Granulomatosis with polyangiitis; Rituximab.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis / complications*
  • Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis / drug therapy*
  • Humans