Combination HIV Prevention Strategies Among Montreal Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men in the PrEP Era: A Latent Class Analysis

AIDS Behav. 2021 Jan;25(1):269-283. doi: 10.1007/s10461-020-02965-4.


Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) became publicly available in Quebec for gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) in 2013. We used baseline data from Engage, a cohort of GBM recruited by respondent-driven sampling, to examine patterns of combination HIV prevention use among Montreal GBM since PrEP became available. Latent class analysis, stratified by HIV status, was used to categorize GBM by self-reported use of biomedical and behavioural prevention strategies. Correlates of resulting classes were identified using multinomial logistic regression. Among HIV-negative/unknown GBM (n = 968), we identified four classes: low use of prevention (32%), condoms (40%), seroadaptive behaviour (21%), and biomedical (including PrEP; 7%). Those using prevention (condoms, seroadaptive behaviour, and biomedical) had a higher number of anal sex partners and were more likely to report a recent sexually transmitted infection diagnosis. GBM using biomedical prevention also had a higher level of formal education. Among GBM living with HIV (n = 200), we identified three classes: mainly antiretroviral treatment (ART) with viral suppression (53%), ART with viral suppression and condoms (19%), and ART with viral suppression and seroadaptive behaviour (18%). Again, the number of anal sex partners was higher among those using condoms and seroadaptive behaviours. Our findings show antiretroviral-based prevention, either alone or in combination with other strategies, is clearly a component of the HIV prevention landscape for GBM in Montreal. Nevertheless, PrEP uptake remains low, and there is a need to promote its availability more widely.

Keywords: Combination HIV prevention; HIV prevention strategies; Latent class analysis; Men who have sex with men; Pre-exposure prophylaxis.

MeSH terms

  • Bisexuality
  • HIV Infections* / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections* / prevention & control
  • Homosexuality
  • Homosexuality, Male
  • Humans
  • Latent Class Analysis
  • Male
  • Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis*
  • Quebec / epidemiology
  • Sexual Behavior*