Blood pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus with arterial hypertension. The important ancillary role of SGLT2-inhibitors and GLP1-receptor agonists

Pharmacol Res. 2020 Oct;160:105052. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105052. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension are major cardiovascular risks factors which shares metabolic and haemodynamic abnormalities as well as pathophysiological mechanisms. The simultaneous presence of diabetes and arterial hypertension increases the risk of left ventricular hypertrophy, congestive heart failure, and stroke, as compared to either condition alone. A number of guidelines recommend lifestyle measures such as salt restriction, weight reduction and ideal body weight mainteinance, regular physical activity and smoking cessation, together with moderation of alcohol consumption and high intake of vegetables and fruits, as the basis for reduction of blood pressure and prevention of CV diseases. Despite the availability of multiple drugs effective for hypertension, BP targets are reached in only 50 % of patients, with even fewer individuals with T2DM-achieving goals. It is established that new emerging classes of type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment, SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP1-receptor agonists, are efficacious on glucose control, and safe in reducing HbA1c significantly, without increasing hypoglycemic episodes. Furthermore, in recent years, many CVOT trials have demonstrated, using GLP1-RA or SGLT2-inihibitors compared to placebo (in combination with the usual diabetes medications) important benefits on reducing MACE (cardio-cerebral vascular events) in the diabetic population. In this hypothesis-driven review, we have examined the anti-hypertensive effects of these novel molecules of the two different classes, in the diabetic population, and suggest that they could have an interesting ancillary role in controlling blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients.

Keywords: Diabetes and hypertension; GLP1-Receptor agonists; Insulin resistence; Metabolic Syndrome; SGLT2-Inhibitors.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor / agonists*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension / etiology*
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors / therapeutic use*

Substances

  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors