Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Terpene- and Polyphenol-Rich Premna odorata Leaves on Alcohol-Inflamed Female Wistar Albino Rat Liver

Molecules. 2020 Jul 8;25(14):3116. doi: 10.3390/molecules25143116.


Premna odorata Blanco (Lamiaceae) is an ethnomedicinal plant native to different tropical regions. Although some reports addressed their anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and antituberculotic effects, their hepatoprotective potential is yet to be discovered. Accordingly, this study investigated the crude extract and different fractions of the plant leaves; metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography/high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (LC-HRESIMS) analysis, in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) properties for the dereplicated metabolite via online PreADMET program, ROS scavenger activity on the Hep G2 human liver cancer cell line, and the possible hepatic cellular treatment effects in alcohol-inflamed liver female Wistar albino rats. Metabolic profiling dereplicated a total of 28 metabolites from the crude extract and its various fractions. In silico ADMET and ROS scavenger activity screening suggested plant metabolites are of potential bioactivity. In vivo hepatic treatment with crude, defatted crude, and n-hexane leave extracts suggested all extracts significantly improved liver damage, which was indicated by the reduction of elevated serum levels of bilirubin, AST, ALT, ALP, CRP, TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MDA. The reduced levels of GSH and TAC were normalized during the study. Histological examinations of liver tissue showed collagen fiber distribution nearly back to its normal pattern. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials of Premna odorata extracts could be partly related to the combined effects of these phytochemicals or their synergistic interactions.

Keywords: ADMET; LC–HRESIMS; Premna odorata; ROS; TNF-α; antioxidant; polyphenolic; terpene.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents* / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents* / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants* / chemistry
  • Antioxidants* / pharmacology
  • Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury* / drug therapy
  • Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury* / metabolism
  • Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury* / pathology
  • Ethanol / adverse effects*
  • Ethanol / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Lamiaceae / chemistry*
  • Liver* / metabolism
  • Liver* / pathology
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry*
  • Polyphenols / chemistry
  • Polyphenols / pharmacology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Terpenes / chemistry
  • Terpenes / pharmacology


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Polyphenols
  • Terpenes
  • Ethanol