Frequency of Reduced Left Ventricular Contractile Efficiency and Discoordinated Myocardial Relaxation in Patients Aged 16 to 21 Years With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (from the Emerald Study)

Am J Cardiol. 2020 Aug 1:128:45-53. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.04.041. Epub 2020 May 13.


Early-onset cardiomyopathy is a major concern for people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Studies examining myocardial deformation indices early in the disease process in people with have provided conflicting results. Accordingly, the objective was to examine left ventricular (LV) function in adolescents with type 1 DM using novel measures of cardiomyopathy, termed ventricular discoordination indices, including systolic stretch fraction (SSF), and our newly developed diastolic relaxation fraction (DRF). Adolescents with DM (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 20) underwent cardiac MRI (CMR) tissue tracking analysis for standard volumetric and functional analysis. Segment-specific circumferential strain and strain rate indices were evaluated to calculate standard mechanical dyssynchrony and discoordination. SSF and DRF were calculated from strain rate data. There were no global or regional group differences between participants with DM and controls in standard LV strain mechanics. However, youth with DM had lower diastolic strain rate around the inferior septal and free wall region (all p <0.05) as well as higher SSF (p = 0.03) and DRF (p <0.001) compared with controls. None of the CMR indices correlated with HbA1c or diabetes duration. In conclusion, our results suggest that adolescents with DM have LV systolic and diastolic discoordination, providing early evidence of cardiomyopathy despite their young age. The presence of discoordination in the setting of normal LV size and function suggests that the proposed novel discoordination indices could serve as a more sensitive marker of cardiomyopathy than previously employed mechanical deformation indices.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetic Cardiomyopathies / diagnostic imaging
  • Diabetic Cardiomyopathies / epidemiology
  • Diabetic Cardiomyopathies / physiopathology
  • Diastole
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine
  • Male
  • Myocardial Contraction / physiology*
  • Systole
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / diagnostic imaging
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / epidemiology*
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / physiopathology
  • Ventricular Function, Left*
  • Young Adult