Evaluation of antibodies produced after immunization is central to immune deficiency diagnosis. This includes assessment of responses to routine immunizations as well as to vaccines administered specifically for diagnosis. Here, we present the basic concepts of the humoral immune response and their relevance for vaccine composition and diagnosis of immune deficiency. Current vaccines are discussed, including nonviable protein and glycoprotein vaccines, pure polysaccharide vaccines, polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines, and live agent vaccines. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of vaccine antibody measurement are discussed in depth. Important adverse effects of vaccines are also presented.
Keywords: Immunology; Primary immunodeficiency; Vaccines.
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