Prognostic Factors of Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinomas Arising De Novo and From Inverted Papilloma

Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2021 Jan;35(1):114-121. doi: 10.1177/1945892420939422. Epub 2020 Jul 12.


Background: The prognostic factors and survival difference between inverted papilloma (IP)-associated sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and de novo SCC are unclear.

Objective: This study aimed to compare the clinical features and oncologic outcomes in patients with IP-associated SCC and de novo SCC; and additionally, to analyze the prognostic factors of the two types of SCCs.

Methods: Data from 173 SCC patients treated for IP-associated SCC (n = 89) and de novo SCC (n = 84), were reviewed retrospectively for demographic features, tumor characteristics, treatment modality, and clinical outcomes. 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze factors influencing prognosis.

Results: A higher proportion of IP-associated SCC occurred in frontal and sphenoid sinus compared to de novo SCC. The two groups demonstrated similar 5-year OS and DFS (5-year OS: 63.3% and 55.4%, DFS: 45.4% and 50.1%, respectively). The metachronous tumor had a relatively better prognosis outcome than synchronous tumor and de novo SCC (5-year OS: 73.1%, 54.5% and 55.4%, respectively). Both groups showed similar loco-regional recurrence rates (p > 0.05); however, de novo SCC tumors demonstrated an increased incidence of distant metastasis. Multivariate analysis indicated that age >70 years, advanced tumor stage and surgical margin were independent predictive factors for the risk of mortality (HR 2.047, 1.581 and 1.931, respectively).

Conclusion: IP-associated SCCs have an aggressive loco-regional tendency, whereas de novo SCCs have a higher aggressive distant metastatic propensity. Age, tumor stage and surgical positive margin are key factors for poor prognosis and should be routinely taken into consideration during treatment planning and subsequent surveillance.

Keywords: inverted papilloma; neoplasms; paranasal sinus; prognostic factors; squamous cell carcinoma.

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell*
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology
  • Papilloma, Inverted*
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies