Objective: To provide a state of the art review of intranasal antiviral drug delivery and to discuss current applications, adverse reactions, and future considerations in the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Data sources: PubMed, Embase, and Clinicaltrials.gov search engines.
Review methods: A structured search of the current literature was performed of dates up to and including April 2020. Search terms were queried as related to topics of antiviral agents and intranasal applications. A series of video conferences was convened among experts in otolaryngology, infectious diseases, public health, pharmacology, and virology to review the literature and discuss relevant findings.
Conclusions: Intranasal drug delivery for antiviral agents has been studied for many years. Several agents have broad-spectrum antiviral activity, but they still require human safety and efficacy trials prior to implementation. Intranasal drug delivery has potential relevance for future clinical trials in the settings of disease spread prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 and other viral diseases.
Implications for practice: Intranasal drug delivery represents an important area of research for COVID-19 and other viral diseases. The consideration of any potential adverse reactions is paramount.
Keywords: COVID-19; antiviral agents; coronavirus; nasal; nasopharynx; otolaryngology; public health; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.