Phages Needed against Resistant Bacteria

Viruses. 2020 Jul 10;12(7):743. doi: 10.3390/v12070743.


Phages have been known for more than 100 years. They have been applied to numerous infectious diseases and have proved to be effective in many cases. However, they have been neglected due to the era of antibiotics. With the increase of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, we need additional therapies. Whether or not phages can fulfill this expectation needs to be verified and tested according to the state-of-the-art of international regulations. These regulations fail, however, with respect to GMP production of phages. Phages are biologicals, not chemical compounds, which cannot be produced under GMP regulations. This needs to be urgently changed to allow progress to determine how phages can enter routine clinical settings.

Keywords: case reports; multidrug-resistant bacteria; phage therapy; probiotics; regulation.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bacteria / virology*
  • Bacterial Infections / therapy*
  • Bacteriophages / physiology*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial*
  • Humans
  • Phage Therapy / methods


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents