Regulation of the Human Papillomavirus Life Cycle by DNA Damage Repair Pathways and Epigenetic Factors

Viruses. 2020 Jul 10;12(7):744. doi: 10.3390/v12070744.


Human papillomaviruses are the causative agents of cervical and other anogenital cancers along with approximately 60% of oropharyngeal cancers. These small double-stranded DNA viruses infect stratified epithelia and link their productive life cycles to differentiation. HPV proteins target cellular factors, such as those involved in DNA damage repair, as well as epigenetic control of host and viral transcription to regulate the productive life cycle. HPVs constitutively activate the ATM and ATR DNA repair pathways and preferentially recruit these proteins to viral genomes to facilitate productive viral replication. In addition, the sirtuin deacetylases along with histone acetyltransferases, including Tip60, are targeted in HPV infections to regulate viral transcription and replication. These pathways provide potential targets for drug therapy to treat HPV-induced disease.

Keywords: ATM; ATR; DNA damage; HPV; Tip60; sirtuins.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alphapapillomavirus / genetics
  • Alphapapillomavirus / physiology*
  • DNA Damage / genetics*
  • DNA Repair / genetics*
  • Epigenesis, Genetic / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Papillomavirus Infections / virology
  • Virus Replication