Skeletal muscle plays an indispensable role in metabolic health and physical function. A decrease in muscle mass and function with advancing age exacerbates the likelihood of mobility impairments, disease development, and early mortality. Therefore, the development of non-pharmacological interventions to counteract sarcopenia warrant significant attention. Currently, resistance training provides the most effective, low cost means by which to prevent sarcopenia progression and improve multiple aspects of overall health. Importantly, the impact of resistance training on skeletal muscle mass may be augmented by specific dietary components (i.e., protein), feeding strategies (i.e., timing, per-meal doses of specific macronutrients) and nutritional supplements (e.g., creatine, vitamin-D, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids etc.). The purpose of this review is to provide an up-to-date, evidence-based account of nutritional strategies to enhance resistance training-induced adaptations in an attempt to combat age-related muscle mass loss. In addition, we provide insight on how to incorporate the aforementioned nutritional strategies that may support the growth or maintenance of skeletal muscle and subsequently extend the healthspan of older individuals.
Keywords: aging; diet; exercise; nutrition; protein.