Inhalation Exposure to Gaseous and Particulate Bound Mercury Present in the Ambient Air over the Polluted Area of Southern Poland

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jul 11;17(14):4999. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17144999.


This study concerns the concentrations of gaseous and particle-bound mercury present in ambient air of two Polish sites, differing in terms of emission structure, and the estimation of inhalation risks related to those Hg species. The measurements of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and PM2.5-bound mercury (PBM) were performed at an urban station in Zabrze and a rural station in Złoty Potok, in 2014-2015. Both sites are located in Silesia, considered one of the European air pollution hot-spots. TGM was measured on-line (Tekran 2537). PM2.5 samples were taken with the use of low volume samplers. Hg contents in PM were determined by the CVAAS method following thermal decomposition. The median concentrations of TGM and PBM in Zabrze were 2.48 ng m-3 and 37.87 pg m-3, respectively; meanwhile in Zloty Potok, these were 1.69 ng m-3 and 27.82 pg m-3, respectively. Clearly, seasonal variability of TGM and PBM concentrations were observed, reflecting the importance of Hg and PM emissions from coal combustion for power and heating purposes. Health risk assessment was performed using a deterministic approach by the most conservative exposure scenario. The obtained HQ ratios and the cumulative HI indexes were below the limit value (<1). This means an unlikely health hazard due mercury inhalation.

Keywords: PBM; PM2.5; TGM; exposure rate; inhalation toxicity; mercury; rural background; urban background.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants / analysis*
  • Coal
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Gases
  • Humans
  • Inhalation Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Mercury / adverse effects*
  • Mercury / analysis
  • Poland
  • Risk Assessment


  • Air Pollutants
  • Coal
  • Gases
  • Mercury