TIM-3 and TIGIT are possible immune checkpoint targets in patients with bladder cancer

Urol Oncol. 2022 Sep;40(9):403-406. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.06.007. Epub 2020 Jul 12.


The resurgence of immunotherapy as an effective anticancer strategy has been coupled with more mature understandings of the underlying immune pathways and the development of novel immune checkpoint targets. The clinical development of antibodies first directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, and later against program death 1, achieved durable disease control in a subset of patients across a large number of tumor types. Previous work demonstrates that targeting the programmed death 1 pathway alone does not result in complete restoration of T cell function and in some cancers, targeting this axis does not restore T cell function at all, suggesting a need to identify other molecules and inhibitory pathways that are involved in T cell exhaustion. In a comprehensive immune profiling study of patients with bladder cancer, we demonstrate T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-containing molecule and T cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif domain as possible targets as perhaps monotherapy or in combination with other immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2*
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms*


  • Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • TIGIT protein, human