Prediction of Human Disproportionate and Biliary Excreted Metabolites Using Chimeric Mice with Humanized Liver

Drug Metab Dispos. 2020 Oct;48(10):934-943. doi: 10.1124/dmd.120.000128. Epub 2020 Jul 14.


The PXB-mouse is potentially a useful in vivo model to predict human hepatic metabolism and clearance. Four model compounds, [14C]desloratadine, [3H]mianserin, cyproheptadine, and [3H]carbazeran, all reported with disproportionate human metabolites, were orally administered to PXB- or control SCID mice to elucidate the biotransformation of each of them. For [14C]desloratadine in PXB-mice, O-glucuronide of 3-hydroxydesloratadine was observed as the predominant metabolite in both the plasma and urine. Both 3-hydroxydesloratadine and its O-glucuronide were detected as major drug-related materials in the bile, whereas only 3-hydroxydesloratadine was detected in the feces, suggesting that a fraction of 3-hydroxydesloratadine in feces was derived from deconjugation of its O-glucuronide by gut microflora. This information can help understand the biliary clearance mechanism of a drug and may fill the gap in a human absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion study, in which the bile samples are typically not available. The metabolic profiles in PXB-mice were qualitatively similar to those reported in humans in a clinical study in which 3-hydroxydesloratadine and its O-glucuronide were major and disproportionate metabolites compared with rat, mouse, and monkey. In the control SCID mice, neither of the metabolites was detected in any matrix. Similarly, for the other three compounds, all human specific or disproportionate metabolites were detected at a high level in PXB-mice, but they were either minimally observed or not observed in the control mice. Data from these four compounds indicate that studies in PXB-mice can help predict the potential for the presence of human disproportionate metabolites (relative to preclinical species) prior to conducting clinical studies and understand the biliary clearance mechanism of a drug. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Studies in PXB-mice have successfully predicted the human major and disproportionate metabolites compared with preclinical safety species for desloratadine, mianserin, cyproheptadine, and carbazeran. In addition, biliary excretion data from PXB-mice can help illustrate the human biliary clearance mechanism of a drug.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bile / metabolism
  • Biotransformation
  • Carbamates / administration & dosage
  • Carbamates / pharmacokinetics
  • Cyproheptadine / administration & dosage
  • Cyproheptadine / pharmacokinetics
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical / methods
  • Hepatobiliary Elimination*
  • Hepatocytes / metabolism
  • Hepatocytes / transplantation
  • Humans
  • Liver / cytology
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Loratadine / administration & dosage
  • Loratadine / analogs & derivatives
  • Loratadine / pharmacokinetics
  • Male
  • Mianserin / administration & dosage
  • Mianserin / pharmacokinetics
  • Mice
  • Transplantation Chimera / metabolism


  • Carbamates
  • carbazeran
  • Mianserin
  • Cyproheptadine
  • 3-hydroxydesloratadine
  • Loratadine
  • desloratadine