Systemic Effects of Photobiomodulation on the Morphology of the Thyroid and Sublingual Glands: A Study in Rabbits

Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg. 2020 Jul;38(7):425-430. doi: 10.1089/photob.2019.4701.


Objective: To investigate whether photobiomodulation (PBM) applied in a clinical situation with the purpose of improving the healing process of implants placed in the rabbit mandible would cause any morphological change in the thyroid and sublingual glands as a systemic effect of laser irradiation. Methods: Thirty-two New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each, one control group (CI, nonirradiated animals) and three experimental groups (EI, EII, and EIII) that received PBM postoperatively with an aluminum/gallium/arsenide laser diode (Theralase®) at a wavelength of 830 nm (infrared) and 50 mW output power applied to two irradiation fields per session, for a total of seven sessions. All rabbits underwent surgical extraction of the mandibular left incisor, followed by immediate placement of an osseointegrated implant in the fresh socket. The experimental groups EI, EII, and EIII received PBM at an energy density of 5, 2.5, and 10 J/cm2, respectively, per irradiation field. Results: There was no histomorphometric change in any of the groups. Conclusions: PBM, based on the irradiation protocol used in this study, does not cause morphological changes in the thyroid and sublingual glands when used to stimulate peri-implant bone healing in the rabbit mandible.

Keywords: PBM; laser; maxillofacial surgery; sublingual gland; thyroid gland.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone-Implant Interface
  • Dental Implantation
  • Dental Implants
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Lasers, Semiconductor / therapeutic use*
  • Low-Level Light Therapy*
  • Male
  • Mandible / surgery*
  • Rabbits
  • Sublingual Gland / radiation effects*
  • Thyroid Gland / radiation effects*
  • Wound Healing / radiation effects*


  • Dental Implants