Epidemiology of readmissions in early infancy following nonelective cesarean delivery

J Perinatol. 2021 Jan;41(1):24-31. doi: 10.1038/s41372-020-0730-1. Epub 2020 Jul 15.


Objective: Determine incidence and risk factors for readmissions in early infancy.

Study design: Secondary analysis of data from the Cesarean Section Optimal Antibiotic Prophylaxis trial. All unplanned revisits (unplanned clinic, ER visits, and hospital readmissions) and hospital readmissions (initial discharge to 3-month follow-up) were analyzed.

Results: 295 (15.9%) of 1850 infants had revisits with risk factors being ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.6 for Hispanic), maternal postpartum antibiotics (1.89), azithromycin treatment (1.22), small for gestational age (1.68), apnea (3.82), and hospital stay after birth >90th percentile (0.49). 71 (3.8%) of 1850 infants were readmitted with risk factors being antenatal steroids (aOR 2.49), elective repeat C/section (0.72), postpartum maternal antibiotics (2.22), O2 requirement after delivery room (2.82), and suspected/proven neonatal sepsis (0.55).

Conclusion(s): Multiple risk factors were identified, suggesting potential impact on the neonatal microbiome (maternal postpartum antibiotics) or issues related to access/cost of care (Hispanic ethnicity associated with fewer revisits).

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antibiotic Prophylaxis
  • Cesarean Section*
  • Cesarean Section, Repeat
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Patient Readmission*
  • Pregnancy


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents