Aspergillosis is a commonly diagnosed fungal infection. Histopathologic examination alone can have diagnostic pitfalls due to the overlapping of fungal morphology. We report a case of Scedosporium boydii infection initially misdiagnosed as aspergillosis. The patient presented to the hospital with shortness of breath and chest and abdominal pain. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis and elevated serum liver enzymes, myoglobin and lipase. He died of hypotensive shock and brain abscesses despite antibiotic treatment. Autopsy revealed invasive fungal infection in the heart, thyroid, and brain with presence of 45-degree angled, branching hyphae. The initial diagnosis of aspergillosis was made; however, further molecular studies identified the organism as S. boydii. This report reveals the potential pitfalls of morphologic diagnosis alone; and the necessity of other testing modalities to render an accurate diagnosis which is crucial for appropriate.
Copyright © 2020 Yuying Jiang et al.