The influence of tobacco consumption on periodontal health: A stratified analysis based on type of tobacco use

J Family Med Prim Care. 2020 Apr 30;9(4):2061-2066. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1071_19. eCollection 2020 Apr.

Abstract

Introduction: Though the negative influence of tobacco consumption on the periodontal status of an individual is established, the magnitude of this association based on the type of tobacco used is seldom investigated.

Aim: The aim of this study is to check the differences in the periodontal status of individuals based on their current tobacco consumption status and type of tobacco consumption.

Materials and methods: This study was conducted among subjects attending a teaching dental institution in Andhra Pradesh. Subjects were divided into three groups based on their current tobacco consumption status. The following parameters were recorded after examination by two calibrated investigators: number of sites with bleeding on probing; number of teeth with periodontal pockets; number of teeth with clinical attachment loss of ≥5 mm; number of teeth lost. SPSS version 20 software was used to analyze the data.

Results: While current users demonstrated poor periodontal status than the former and nonusers, there was a significant difference in periodontal health between former users and nonusers in all the study parameters except the mean number of teeth lost. Among current users, the mean percentage of sites with bleeding and attachment loss >5 mm were found to be least among smokers compared to tobacco chewers and those who consume both smoke and smokeless forms of tobacco.

Conclusion: The study confirms the negative influence of tobacco consumption on periodontal health and also establishes the increased destruction of clinical attachment levels among tobacco chewers compared to smokers.

Keywords: Periodontal attachment loss; smokeless tobacco; tobacco use.