Educational Case: Tetralogy of Fallot and a Review of the Most Common Forms of Congenital Heart Disease

Acad Pathol. 2020 Jul 6;7:2374289520934094. doi: 10.1177/2374289520934094. eCollection Jan-Dec 2020.


The following fictional case is intended as a learning tool within the Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME), a set of national standards for teaching pathology. These are divided into three basic competencies: Disease Mechanisms and Processes, Organ System Pathology, and Diagnostic Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology. For additional information, and a full list of learning objectives for all three competencies, see

Keywords: cardiac shunt; cardiovascular malformation; congenital heart disease; genetic disorders; organ system pathology; pathology competencies; tetralogy of Fallot.