Influenza B virus evolution: co-circulating lineages and comparison of evolutionary pattern with those of influenza A and C viruses

Virology. 1988 Mar;163(1):112-22. doi: 10.1016/0042-6822(88)90238-3.


Sequence analyses and comparison of the genes coding for the nonstructural (NS) and hemagglutinin (HA) proteins of different influenza B viruses isolated between 1940 and 1987 reveal that the number of substitutions is not always proportional to the time between isolates. Examination of 14 influenza B virus NS gene and 10 HA gene sequences by the maximum parsimony method suggested that--as with influenza C viruses--there are multiple evolutionary lineages which can coexist for considerable periods of time. Comparison of the sequence divergence among genes of viruses belonging to type A, B, and C virus suggests that, in man, influenza B viruses evolve slower than A viruses and faster than C viruses. We propose an evolutionary model for influenza B viruses that is intermediate between the pattern for human influenza A viruses and that for influenza C viruses.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Base Sequence
  • Biological Evolution
  • Genes, Viral*
  • Hemagglutinins, Viral / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Influenza A virus / genetics
  • Influenza B virus / genetics*
  • Influenzavirus C / genetics
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Viral Proteins / genetics*


  • Hemagglutinins, Viral
  • Viral Proteins

Associated data

  • GENBANK/M19786
  • GENBANK/M19787
  • GENBANK/M19788
  • GENBANK/M19789
  • GENBANK/M19790
  • GENBANK/M19791
  • GENBANK/M19792
  • GENBANK/M19793
  • GENBANK/M19794
  • GENBANK/M19795
  • GENBANK/M19796
  • GENBANK/M19797
  • GENBANK/M22943
  • GENBANK/M22944
  • GENBANK/M22945
  • GENBANK/M22946
  • GENBANK/M22947