In this study, the efficiency of microwave-assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD) to extract essential oil from Cinnamomum camphora leaf, and the recovery of polyphenols from extract fluid were investigated. The effects of microwave power, liquid-to-material ratio, and extraction time on the extraction efficiency were studied by a single factor test as well as the response surface methodology (RSM) based on the central composite design method. The optimal extraction conditions were a microwave power of 786.27 W, liquid-to-material ratio of 7.47:1 mL/g, and extraction time of 35.57 min. The yield of essential oil was 3.26 ± 0.05% (w/w), and the recovery of polyphenols was 4.97 ± 0.02 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight under the optimal conditions. Furthermore, the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) was used to characterize the essential oils of fresh and fallen leaves, and 159 individual compounds were tentatively identified, accounting for more than 89.68 and 87.88% of the total contents, respectively. The main ingredients include sabinene, l-β-pinene, β-myrcene, α-terpineol, 3-heptanone, and β-thujene, as well as δ-terpineol and 3-heptanone, which were first identified in C. camphora essential oil. In conclusion, the MAHD method could extract essential oil from C. camphora with high efficiency, and the polyphenols could be obtained from the extract fluid at the same time, improving the utilization of C. camphora leaf.
Keywords: Cinnamomum camphora; GC×GC-TOFMS; essential oil; microwave-assisted extraction; polyphenols; response surface methodology.