Men and COVID-19: A Biopsychosocial Approach to Understanding Sex Differences in Mortality and Recommendations for Practice and Policy Interventions

Prev Chronic Dis. 2020 Jul 16;17:E63. doi: 10.5888/pcd17.200247.

Abstract

Data suggest that more men than women are dying of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, but it is unclear why. A biopsychosocial approach is critical for understanding the disproportionate death rate among men. Biological, psychological, behavioral, and social factors may put men at disproportionate risk of death. We propose a stepwise approach to clinical, public health, and policy interventions to reduce COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality among men. We also review what health professionals and policy makers can do, and are doing, to address the unique COVID-19-associated needs of men.

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2
  • Betacoronavirus*
  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Coronavirus Infections / immunology
  • Coronavirus Infections / mortality*
  • Coronavirus Infections / psychology*
  • Female
  • Health Policy*
  • Health Promotion
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pandemics
  • Patient Education as Topic / methods
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / blood
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / metabolism
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology
  • Pneumonia, Viral / immunology
  • Pneumonia, Viral / mortality*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / psychology*
  • Preventive Medicine
  • Public Health
  • Risk Factors
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Sex Factors
  • United States / epidemiology

Substances

  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A
  • ACE2 protein, human
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2