Comparison of push/pull force estimates using a single-axis gauge versus a three-dimensional hand transducer

Appl Ergon. 2020 Oct:88:103184. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2020.103184. Epub 2020 Jun 16.


This study investigated the effects of using a single-axis force gauge for push/pull force measurement on kinetic/kinematic measures associated with the exertion and assessed agreement between forces recorded from two technologies (single-axis gauge, three-dimensional hand transducer) and various test conditions via intraclass correlations. Independent measures included exertion type (push, pull, turn), test condition (natural/cart alone, using force gauge at fast/slow/self-selected paces), and cart weight (light, heavy). Dependent measures included mean angles of force application, peak forces recorded from both technologies, and cart velocity. Excellent agreement was observed between technologies (ICC = 0.998). Likewise, peak forces using the single-axis gauge at the fast pace agreed best with the natural test condition (ICC = 0.631). Forces should be measured using a faster initial acceleration and sustained velocity than is prescribed by the current standard if they are to accurately approximate forces relative to existing push/pull guidelines. Future work should also develop recommendations for measuring turning forces.

Keywords: Digital force gauge; Force limit; Risk assessment.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Acceleration*
  • Accelerometry / instrumentation*
  • Adult
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Correlation of Data
  • Equipment Design / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Hand / physiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Physical Exertion / physiology*
  • Task Performance and Analysis
  • Transducers*
  • Weight-Bearing / physiology