Supplementation with vitamin D in the COVID-19 pandemic?

Nutr Rev. 2021 Jan 9;79(2):200-208. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuaa081.


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization. COVID-19 has high transmissibility and could result in acute lung injury in a fraction of patients. By counterbalancing the activity of the renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, which is the fusion receptor of the virus, plays a protective role against the development of complications of this viral infection. Vitamin D can induce the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and regulate the immune system through different mechanisms. Epidemiologic studies of the relationship between vitamin D and various respiratory infections were reviewed and, here, the postulated mechanisms and clinical data supporting the protective role of vitamin D against COVID-19-mediated complications are discussed.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; coronavirus infections; prevention; respiratory tract infection; vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 / immunology
  • COVID-19 / therapy*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Humans
  • Immune System / drug effects
  • Renin-Angiotensin System / drug effects
  • SARS-CoV-2 / drug effects*
  • SARS-CoV-2 / immunology
  • Vitamin D / pharmacology*
  • Vitamins / pharmacology*


  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin D