Quantum Diffie-Hellman Extended to Dynamic Quantum Group Key Agreement for e-Healthcare Multi-Agent Systems in Smart Cities

Sensors (Basel). 2020 Jul 15;20(14):3940. doi: 10.3390/s20143940.


Multi-Agent Systems can support e-Healthcare applications for improving quality of life of citizens. In this direction, we propose a healthcare system architecture named smart healthcare city. First, we divide a given city into various zones and then we propose a zonal level three-layered system architecture. Further, for effectiveness we introduce a Multi-Agent System (MAS) in this three-layered architecture. Protecting sensitive health information of citizens is a major security concern. Group key agreement (GKA) is the corner stone for securely sharing the healthcare data among the healthcare stakeholders of the city. For establishing GKA, many efficient cryptosystems are available in the classical field. However, they are yet dependent on the supposition that some computational problems are infeasible. In light of quantum mechanics, a new field emerges to share a secret key among two or more members. The unbreakable and highly secure features of key agreement based on fundamental laws of physics allow us to propose a Quantum GKA (QGKA) technique based on renowned Quantum Diffie-Hellman (QDH). In this, a node acts as a Group Controller (GC) and forms 2-party groups with remaining nodes, establishing a QDH-style shared key per each two-party. It then joins these keys into a single group key by means of a XOR-operation, acting as a usual group node. Furthermore, we extend the QGKA to Dynamic QGKA (DQGKA) by adding join and leave protocol. Our protocol performance was compared with existing QGKA protocols in terms of Qubit efficiency (QE), unitary operation (UO), unitary operation efficiency (UOE), key consistency check (KCC), security against participants attack (SAP) and satisfactory results were obtained. The security analysis of the proposed technique is based on unconditional security of QDH. Moreover, it is secured against internal and external attack. In this way, e-healthcare Multi-Agent System can be robust against future quantum-based attacks.

Keywords: multi-agent system; participant attacks; quantum group key; quantum information; quantum summation; quantum teleportation; sensor.

MeSH terms

  • Cities
  • Computer Security*
  • Humans
  • Quality of Life
  • Telemedicine*