This review comprises 2 main subjects: the percutaneous and surgical closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) and atrial septal defect (ASD). The aim of the authors was to provide a detailed description of: 1) anatomy of LAA, normal interatrial septum, and the various types of ASD as revealed by noninvasive imaging techniques; 2) preprocedure planning of secundum ASD and LAA percutaneous closure; 3) key steps of the procedural guidance emphasizing the role of 2-dimensional/3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography; and 4) surgical closure of LAA and ASD.
Keywords: atrial septal defect; left atrial appendage; percutaneous closure; surgical closure.
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