Smoke-free workplaces are associated with smoke-free homes in India: evidence for action

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Nov;27(33):41405-41414. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-10107-5. Epub 2020 Jul 18.


India enacted a smoke-free law in 2003. It is believed that smoke-free workplaces will lead to more smoking in private places such as homes. The national Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS 2) India 2016-2017 collects information on the self-reported prevalence of SHS exposure in homes and workplaces. The present study utilised the GATS 2 dataset to establish the association between working in a smoke-free workplace and living in a smoke-free home. 70.1% of respondents who worked indoors reported smoke-free workplace; 64.5% of respondents reported that they live in a smoke-free home. Respondents who reported that their workplace was smoke-free were significantly more likely to live in smoke-free homes compared with those who are exposed to SHS at the workplace (69.5% vs 45.5%, AOR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1). Males, urban residents, family with fewer members, non-smokers and non-smokeless tobacco users were significantly more likely to live in a smoke-free home. Significant differences were also observed with respect to religion, caste, region and education levels. Our results provide conclusive evidence to support that smoke-free workplaces influence smoke-free homes in India. Thus, it highlights the importance of accelerating the implementation of existing national tobacco control legislation on smoke-free public places.

Keywords: Global Adult Tobacco Survey; Second-hand smoke; Smoke-free home; Smoke-free workplace.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Humans
  • India
  • Male
  • Non-Smokers
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution*
  • Workplace*


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution