D-Lactic Acid as a Metabolite: Toxicology, Diagnosis, and Detection

Biomed Res Int. 2020 Jun 17:2020:3419034. doi: 10.1155/2020/3419034. eCollection 2020.


Two enantiomers of lactic acid exist. While L-lactic acid is a common compound of human metabolism, D-lactic acid is produced by some strains of microorganism or by some less relevant metabolic pathways. While L-lactic acid is an endogenous compound, D-lactic acid is a harmful enantiomer. Exposure to D-lactic acid can happen by various ways including contaminated food and beverages and by microbiota during some pathological states like short bowel syndrome. The exposure to D-lactic acid cannot be diagnosed because the common analytical methods are not suitable for distinguishing between the two enantiomers. In this review, pathways for D-lactic acid, pathological processes, and diagnostical and analytical methods are introduced followed by figures and tables. The current literature is summarized and discussed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acidosis / blood
  • Acidosis / diagnosis
  • Acidosis / therapy
  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Lactic Acid / blood
  • Lactic Acid / chemistry
  • Lactic Acid / metabolism*
  • Lactic Acid / toxicity*
  • Metabolic Networks and Pathways
  • Metabolome*


  • Lactic Acid