Comparison of enzymatic and microwave-assisted alkaline extraction approaches for the generation of oligosaccharides from American Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Pomace

J Food Sci. 2020 Jul 20. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.15352. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Cranberry pomace obtained from industrial juice production was characterized by proximate composition analysis and monosaccharide profile of the dietary fiber. Extraction of carbohydrates from pomace was investigated using microwave-assisted alkaline method and five commercial biocatalysts (pure endo-galactanase and four multienzyme biocatalysts). The extracts obtained from microwave-assisted approach had average total sugars yield of 21.3% and contained mostly oligosaccharides in the degree of polymerization range of 7 to 10. All multienzyme biocatalysts led to yields similar or higher than microwave-assisted approach (23.4% to 42.0%), but mainly generated shorter oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization of 2 to 5. Compared to cranberry pomace dietary fiber, microwave-assisted extracts were enriched in pectic oligosaccharides, whereas the enzymatic extracts were enriched in glucans and had less rhamnose and galactose. Pomace ground for 5 min or more by ball mill assumed a powdery consistence. Longer milling did not affect particle size but increased their roughness. Such physical changes had no effect on the efficiency of multienzymatic treatment. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The increased production of cranberries and cranberry products will continuously generate more pomace, a potentially valuable material for the generation of added-value products. Up to 60% to 70% of cranberry pomace is composed of plant cell wall material. The properties of naturally occurring plant cell wall polysaccharides and their corresponding oligosaccharides have been of a great interest, and many of them find application as functional food ingredients. Despite the fact that the cranberry pomace is rich in plant cell polysaccharides, it has been mainly explored as a source of phenolic antioxidants. This study reveals the efficiency of cranberry pomace as a source of nondigestible oligosaccharides. The use of microwave-assisted extraction and different biocatalysts for the enzymatic extraction led to oligosaccharides with well-defined monosaccharide composition and molecular weight distribution. The study of the effects of these extraction techniques on the yield and the characteristics of generated oligosaccharides would allow the modulation of their properties. As an overall, the findings of this study would contribute to lay the scientific ground for the development of innovative process for the isolation of nondigestible oligosaccharides as functional ingredients from cranberry pomace by products.

Keywords: cranberry pomace; enzymatic extraction; functional ingredients; microwave-assisted extraction; oligosaccharides.