Pyrroloquinoline quinone can prevent chronic heart failure by regulating mitochondrial function

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2020 Jun;10(3):453-469. doi: 10.21037/cdt-20-129.

Abstract

Background: Myocardial mitochondrial dysfunction is the leading cause of chronic heart failure (CHF). Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, disruption of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial Ca2+([Ca2+]m) homeostasis and reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) cause myocardial mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, treating CHF by targeting mitochondrial function is a focus of current research. For the first time, this study investigated the effects of the strong antioxidant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) on mitochondrial function in a cardiac pressure overload model, and the mechanism by which PQQ regulates [Ca2+]m homeostasis was explored in depth.

Methods: After transaortic constriction (TAC), normal saline and PQQ (0.4, 2 and 10 mg/kg) were administered intragastrically to Sprague Dawley (SD) rats for 12 weeks. In vitro, neonatal rat left ventricle myocytes (NRVMs) were pretreated with 200 nm angiotensin II (Ang II) with or without PQQ (1, 10 and 100 μM). Rat heart remodelling was verified by assessment of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels (qRT-PCR), cell surface area (wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) staining in vivo and α-actin in vitro) and echocardiography. Myocardial mitochondrial morphology was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Western blotting was used to assess mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and transcription factor A, mitochondrial (TFAM)]. The ΔΨm was determined by tetraethyl benzimidazolyl carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) staining and flow cytometry, and ROS levels were measured by dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and MitoSOX Red staining. [Ca2+]m was measured by isolating rat mitochondria, and mitochondrial Ca2+ channel proteins [the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCLX) and mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU)] were detected by Western blot.

Results: In vivo and in vitro, PQQ pretreatment improved pressure overload-induced cardiac remodelling and cell hypertrophy, thus preventing the occurrence of CHF. PQQ also prevented mitochondrial morphology damage and reduced the PGC-1α and TFAM downregulation caused by TAC or Ang II. In addition, in NRVMs treated with Ang II + PQQ, PQQ regulated ROS levels and increased the ΔΨm. PQQ also regulated [Ca2+]m homeostasis and prohibited [Ca2+]m overloading by increasing NCLX expression.

Conclusions: These results show that PQQ can prevent [Ca2+]m overload by increasing NCLX expression and thereby reducing ROS production and protecting the ΔΨm. At the same time, PQQ can increase PGC-1α and TFAM expression to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. These factors can prevent mitochondrial dysfunction, thereby reducing cardiac damage caused by pressure overload and preventing the occurrence of CHF.

Keywords: Chronic heart failure (CHF); [Ca2+]m overload; mitochondrial dysfunction; pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ).