Fibrinogen and D-dimer variances and anticoagulation recommendations in Covid-19: current literature review

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2020 Jun;66(6):842-848. doi: 10.1590/1806-9282.66.6.842. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly described virus responsible for the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), named by the World Health Organization (WHO) in February/2020. Patients with Covid-19 have an incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of 15.9-29% and sepsis is observed in all deceased patients. Moreover, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is one of the major underlying causes of death among these patients. In patients with DIC, there is a decrease in fibrinogen and an increase in D-dimer levels. Some studies have shown that fibrinogen and one of its end products, D-dimer, might have a predictive value for mortality in patients with non-Covid sepsis secondary to complications of DIC. Therefore, anticoagulation, considering its mortality benefits in cases of non-Covid sepsis, may also have an important role in the treatment of Covid-19. METHODS We reviewed the literature of all studies published by April 2020 on patients infected with Covid-19. Our review was limited to D-dimer and fibrinogen changes and anticoagulation recommendations. RESULTS Anticoagulation therapy can be started following the DIC diagnosis in Covid-19 patients despite the bleeding risks. In addition, the current evidence suggests a routine use of anticoagulation, particularly in patients with higher D-dimer levels (> 3.0 μg/mL). CONCLUSION Covid-19 is a systemic, hypercoagulable disease requiring more studies concerning treatment. Aanticoagulation is still an issue to be studied, but D-dimer rise and disease severity are the indicative factors to start treatment as soon as possible.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anticoagulants* / therapeutic use
  • Betacoronavirus
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Blood Coagulation Disorders* / therapy
  • Blood Coagulation Disorders* / virology
  • Coronavirus Infections* / complications
  • Coronavirus*
  • Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products / analysis
  • Fibrinogen* / analysis
  • Humans
  • Pandemics*
  • Pneumonia, Viral* / complications

Substances

  • Anticoagulants
  • Biomarkers
  • Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products
  • fibrin fragment D
  • Fibrinogen

Supplementary concepts

  • COVID-19
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2