Understanding Trends in PTO Shielding Using Kelman's Processes of Change

J Agromedicine. 2021 Apr;26(2):193-198. doi: 10.1080/1059924X.2020.1795030. Epub 2020 Jul 22.


Background: Kelman's Processes of Change suggest that individuals participate in behaviors for one of three reasons: because it is required (compliance), because the behavior allows them to maintain a particular social status (identification), or because the behavior aligns with the individuals core beliefs (internalization). This study aims to assess the utility of this model in understanding farmers' attitudes and behaviors regarding power take-off (PTO) shielding to prevent entanglements.Methods: Surveys collected data on 673 farmers' attitudes and behaviors related to PTO shielding in 14 highly agricultural counties of New York. Participants were classified based on Kelman's Processes of Change.Results: In total, 59.44% of participants could be classified into one of the three Kelman categories based on both attitude and behavior. Of these participants, 18% were classified in the compliance phase, 3% in identification, and 79% in internalization. Of participants who did not display appropriate shielding behavior, 77% still reported having internalized the importance of PTO shielding.Conclusions: Two main challenges occurred in using Kelman's Processes of Change to assess PTO shielding behaviors among farmers. First, the attitude and behaviors of participants were not always reflective of one another, and second, participants tended to have difficulties distinguishing their primary motivations for PTO shielding (compliance, identification, or internalization). Though participants can be classified based on Kelman's Processes of Change and researchers can benefit from a more in-depth understanding of motivations related to changing safety behaviors, this study indicates that there are challenges in accurately assigning individuals to their appropriate "change" classification.

Keywords: Power take-off (PTO); attitude change; behavior change.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Agriculture*
  • Farmers
  • Humans
  • New York
  • Protective Devices*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires