Galectin-9 Induced by Dietary Prebiotics Regulates Immunomodulation to Reduce Atopic Dermatitis Symptoms in 1-Chloro-2,4-Dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-Treated NC/Nga Mice

J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020 Sep 28;30(9):1343-1354. doi: 10.4014/jmb.2005.05017.

Abstract

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a skin disorder that causes chronic itch. We investigated the inhibitory effects of a mixture of prebiotic short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructooligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS), inulin, or β-glucan on AD development in 1-chloro-2,4- dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-treated NC/Nga mice. Mice were randomly assigned to six groups: untreated mice, AD control, positive control (DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice fed a dietary supplement of Zyrtec), and DNCB-treated NC/Nga mice fed a dietary supplement of prebiotics such as scGOS/lcFOS (T1), inulin (T2), or β-glucan (T3). The prebiotic treatment groups (T1, T2, and T3) showed suppression of AD symptoms, Th2 cell differentiation, and AD-like skin lesions induced by DNCB. In addition, prebiotic treatment also reduced the number of microorganisms such as Firmicutes, which is associated with AD symptoms, and increased the levels of Bacteroidetes and Ruminococcaceae, which are associated with alleviation of AD symptoms. Our findings demonstrate the inhibitory effects of prebiotics on AD development by improving the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance and beneficial symbiotic microorganisms in in vitro and in vivo models.

Keywords: Gut microbiota; Th1 cells; Th2 cells; Treg cells; immunomodulation; prebiotics.