Clinical Profiles, Characteristics, and Outcomes of the First 100 Admitted COVID-19 Patients in Pakistan: A Single-Center Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Karachi

Cureus. 2020 Jun 20;12(6):e8712. doi: 10.7759/cureus.8712.


Background and objective COVID-19 is a highly disseminating viral disease imparted by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2), which was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. In our study, we aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of the first 100 hospitalized patients of confirmed COVID-19 in a developing country. Materials and methods The study included all the admitted patients (n = 100) having COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive, and evaluated clinical profiles and characteristics of the patients linking to disease severity. Results Out of the 100 patients, 67 were in the ward, 33 were in ICU, 78 of them recovered, while 22 deaths reported. The mean age was 52.58 ± 15.68, with most frequent comorbidities are diabetes and hypertension while frequent symptoms are fever and dry cough. Bilateral lower zone patchy infiltrates are frequent chest radiographic findings. Amongst the patients admitted in ICU, there were significant differences in the total leukocyte count (P = 0.001), neutrophils and lymphocytes (P =< 0.001), monocytes (P = 0.027), urea (P =< 0.001), creatinine (P = 0.002), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) increasing with disease severity, lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) and lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratio (LCR) decreasing with mortalities. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) followed by aspartate aminotransferase (AST) are frequent hepatic derangements, while C-reactive protein (CRP) levels predicting ICU admission with area under the curve (AUC): 0.806, positive predictive value (PPV): 85.1% and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) predicting mortality with AUC: 0.877, PPV: 97.3%, while NLR (AUC: 0.806, PPV: 95.8%) for mortality and neutrophils (AUC: 0.773, PPV: 87.5%) for ICU patients. Conclusion A number of factors are linked with disease severity and mortality along with dynamic changes of the laboratory investigations during hospital stay affecting prognosis.

Keywords: coronavirus; covid-19; indicators; indices; intensive care unit; markers; mortality; pakistan; pandemic; severity.