Purpose of review: We aim to review the most recent findings in genomics of sarcoidosis and highlight the gaps in the field.
Recent findings: Original explorations of sarcoidosis subphenotypes, including cases associated with the World Trade Center and ocular sarcoidosis, have identified novel risk loci. Innovative gene--environment interaction studies utilizing modern analytical techniques have discovered risk loci associated with smoking and insecticide exposure. The application of whole-exome sequencing has identified genetic variants associated with persistent sarcoidosis and rare functional variations. A single epigenomics study has provided background knowledge of DNA methylation mechanisms in comparison with gene expression data. The application of machine-learning techniques has suggested new drug repositioning for the treatment of sarcoidosis. Several gene expression studies have identified prominent inflammatory pathways enriched in the affected tissue.
Summary: Certainly, sarcoidosis research has recently advanced in the exploration of disease subphenotypes, utilizing novel analytical techniques, and including measures of clinical variation. Nevertheless, large-scale and diverse cohorts investigated with advanced sequencing methods, such as whole-genome and single-cell RNA sequencing, epigenomics, and meta-analysis coupled with cutting-edge analytic approaches, when employed, will broaden and translate genomics findings into clinical applications, and ultimately open venues for personalized medicine.