Implication of dietary phenolic acids on inflammation in cardiovascular disease

Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2020 Jun 30;21(2):225-240. doi: 10.31083/j.rcm.2020.02.49.


In spite of medical advances, cardiovascular disease remains a significant concern, imposing a great burden upon the economy and public health of nations by causing the highest morbidity and mortality cases globally. Moreover, it is well established that inflammation is closely linked to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Hence, targeting inflammation seems to be a promising strategy in reducing cardiovascular risks. Currently, the importance of natural products in modern medicine is well recognised and continues to be of interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Phenolic acids are a class of phytochemical compounds that are well-known for their health benefits. They consists of various phytochemical constituents and have been widely studied in various disease models. Research involving both animals and humans has proven that phenolic acids possess cardioprotective properties such as anti-hypertensive, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-fibrotic and anti-hypertrophy activity. Furthermore, numerous studies have proven that phenolic acids in phytochemical constituents such as gallic acid, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid are promising anti-inflammatory agents. Hence, in this review, we outline and review recent evidence on the role of phenolic acids and their anti-inflammatory significance in studies published during the last 5 years. We also discuss their possible mechanisms of action in modulating inflammation related to cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: Cytokine; chemokine; inflammatory cell; phenolic acids.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Cardiovascular System / drug effects*
  • Cardiovascular System / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular System / physiopathology
  • Diet*
  • Humans
  • Hydroxybenzoates / administration & dosage*
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / physiopathology
  • Inflammation / prevention & control*
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Hydroxybenzoates
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • phenolic acid