Since reports published in 2015 and 2016 identified 15 probable exposure-outcome associations, there has been an increase in studies in humans of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and a deepened understanding of their effects on human health. In this Series paper, we have reviewed subsequent additions to the literature and identified new exposure-outcome associations with substantial human evidence. Evidence is particularly strong for relations between perfluoroalkyl substances and child and adult obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, gestational diabetes, reduced birthweight, reduced semen quality, polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis, and breast cancer. Evidence also exists for relations between bisphenols and adult diabetes, reduced semen quality, and polycystic ovarian syndrome; phthalates and prematurity, reduced anogenital distance in boys, childhood obesity, and impaired glucose tolerance; organophosphate pesticides and reduced semen quality; and occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer. Greater evidence has accumulated than was previously identified for cognitive deficits and attention-deficit disorder in children following prenatal exposure to bisphenol A, organophosphate pesticides, and polybrominated flame retardants. Although systematic evaluation is needed of the probability and strength of these exposure-outcome relations, the growing evidence supports urgent action to reduce exposure to EDCs.
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