Left ventricular summit arrhythmias with an abrupt V3 transition: Anatomy of the aortic interleaflet triangle vantage point

Heart Rhythm. 2021 Jan;18(1):10-19. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.07.021. Epub 2020 Jul 21.


Background: While early precordial electrocardiographic (ECG) characteristics are useful to differentiate left-sided from the right-sided outflow tract ventricular arrhythmia (OTVA), few patterns predict an origin from the septal margin of the left ventricular (LV) summit.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to report mapping and ablation characteristics of a new ECG pattern with left bundle branch morphology and an abrupt R-wave transition in lead V3 (ATV3).

Methods: Over a 3-year period, 78 consecutive patients (mean age 57±15 years; 35% female) with OTVA were referred for mapping and ablation. Twenty patients (26%) exhibited an ATV3 pattern, of whom 65% failed prior ablation.

Results: Ninety-two percent of patients with ATV3 that underwent simultaneous epicardial and endocardial mapping demonstrated an intramural or epicardial site of origin. Eighty percent of OTVA with ATV3 was eliminated by ablation from the vantage point of the interleaflet triangle below the right-left coronary junction. The ATV3 pattern showed higher sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and accuracy than validated ECG criteria (notch or "w" pattern in lead V1, qrS pattern in leads V1 through V3, and pattern break V2) for predicting successful ablation in the region of the anterior LV ostium. At 12±11 months, freedom from ventricular arrhythmia recurrence was 89% and 82% in the ATV3 and control groups, respectively.

Conclusion: ATV3 is a simple and distinct ECG pattern indicative of a site of origin from the septal margin of the LV summit. The right-left aortic interleaflet triangle vantage point was effective to eliminate OTVA with ATV3 that overwhelmingly exhibited the earliest activation from the epicardium or mid-myocardium. Test characteristics for ATV3 were superior to ECG patterns validated for the anterior LV ostium.

Keywords: Aortic root; Catheter ablation; Commissure; Epicardial; Intramural; LV ostium; LV summit; Precordial; Premature ventricular contraction; Ventricular tachycardia.

MeSH terms

  • Action Potentials / physiology
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Catheter Ablation
  • Electrocardiography*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Heart Conduction System / physiopathology*
  • Heart Rate / physiology*
  • Heart Ventricles / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tachycardia, Ventricular / diagnosis*
  • Tachycardia, Ventricular / physiopathology
  • Tachycardia, Ventricular / surgery