Early Life Oxidative Stress and Long-Lasting Cardiovascular Effects on Offspring Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technologies: A Review

Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jul 22;21(15):5175. doi: 10.3390/ijms21155175.


Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has rapidly developed and is now widely practised worldwide. Both the characteristics of ART (handling gametes/embryos in vitro) and the infertility backgrounds of ART parents (such as infertility diseases and unfavourable lifestyles or diets) could cause increased oxidative stress (OS) that may exert adverse influences on gametogenesis, fertilisation, and foetation, even causing a long-lasting influence on the offspring. For these reasons, the safety of ART needs to be closely examined. In this review, from an ART safety standpoint, the origins of OS are reviewed, and the long-lasting cardiovascular effects and potential mechanisms of OS on the offspring are discussed.

Keywords: assisted reproductive technologies; cardiovascular; long-lasting; offspring; oxidative stress.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular System / embryology*
  • Cardiovascular System / growth & development
  • Cardiovascular System / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular System / physiopathology
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infertility / etiology*
  • Infertility / metabolism
  • Male
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2 / genetics
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2 / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress / genetics
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / adverse effects*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Reproductive Techniques, Assisted / adverse effects*


  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2
  • NFE2L2 protein, human
  • Reactive Oxygen Species