Minireview Exploring the Biological Cycle of Vitamin B3 and Its Influence on Oxidative Stress: Further Molecular and Clinical Aspects

Molecules. 2020 Jul 22;25(15):3323. doi: 10.3390/molecules25153323.


Vitamin B3, or niacin, is one of the most important compounds of the B-vitamin complex. Recent reports have demonstrated the involvement of vitamin B3 in a number of pivotal functions which ensure that homeostasis is maintained. In addition, the intriguing nature of its synthesis and the underlying mechanism of action of vitamin B3 have encouraged further studies aimed at deepening our understanding of the close link between the exogenous supply of B3 and how it activates dependent enzymes. This crucial role can be attributed to the gut microflora and its ability to shape human behavior and development by mediating the bioavailability of metabolites. Recent studies have indicated a possible interconnection between the novel coronavirus and commensal bacteria. As such, we have attempted to explain how the gastrointestinal deficiencies displayed by SARS-CoV-2-infected patients arise. It seems that the stimulation of a proinflammatory cascade and the production of large amounts of reactive oxygen species culminates in the subsequent loss of host eubiosis. Studies of the relationhip between ROS, SARS-CoV-2, and gut flora are sparse in the current literature. As an integrated component, oxidative stress (OS) has been found to negatively influence host eubiosis, in vitro fertilization outcomes, and oocyte quality, but to act as a sentinel against infections. In conclusion, research suggests that in the future, a healthy diet may be considered a reliable tool for maintaining and optimizing our key internal parameters.

Keywords: DNA; SARS-CoV-2; gastrointestinal microflora; niacin; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; oocyte quality; oxidative stress.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Betacoronavirus / metabolism
  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus Infections / pathology*
  • Dysbiosis / physiopathology
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Niacin / metabolism*
  • Niacinamide / metabolism*
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology*
  • Pandemics
  • Pneumonia, Viral / pathology*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • SARS-CoV-2


  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Niacinamide
  • Niacin