An expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at rs9264942 was earlier associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C expression in Europeans. HLA-C has also been related to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) risk in the Japanese. This study examined whether an eQTL SNP at rs9264942 could regulate HLA-C expression and whether four SNP haplotypes, including the eQTL SNP at rs9264942 and three SNPs at rs2270191, rs3132550, and rs6915986 of IBD risk carried in the HLA-C*12:02~B*52:01~DRB1*15:02 allele, were associated with IBD in the Japanese. HLA-C expression on CD3e+CD8a+ lymphocytes was significantly higher for the CC or CT genotype than for the TT genotype of rs9264942. The TACC haplotype of the four SNPs was associated with a strong susceptibility to ulcerative colitis (UC) but protection against Crohn's disease (CD) as well as with disease clinical outcome. While UC protectivity was significant but CD susceptibility was not for the CGTT haplotype, the significance of UC protectivity disappeared but CD susceptibility reached significance for the CGCT haplotype. In conclusion, our findings support that the eQTL SNP at rs9264942 regulates HLA-C expression in the Japanese and suggest that the four SNPs, which are in strong linkage disequilibrium, may be surrogate marker candidates of a particular HLA haplotype, HLA-C*12:02~B*52:01~DRB1*15:02, related to IBD susceptibility and disease outcome.