The world is experiencing a cancer epidemic and an increase in the prevalence of the disease. Cancer remains a major killer, accounting for more than half a million deaths annually. There is a wide range of natural products that have the potential to treat this disease. One of these products is artemisinin; a natural product from Artemisia plant. The Nobel Prize for Medicine was awarded in 2015 for the discovery of artemisinin in recognition of the drug's efficacy. Artemisinin produces highly reactive free radicals by the breakdown of two oxygen atoms that kill cancerous cells. These cells sequester iron and accumulate as much as 1000 times in comparison with normal cells. Generally, chemotherapy is toxic to both cancerous cells and normal cells, while no significant cytotoxicity from artemisinin to normal cells has been found in more than 4000 case studies, which makes it far different than conventional chemotherapy. The pleiotropic response of artemisinin in cancer cells is responsible for growth inhibition by multiple ways including inhibition of angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, disruption of cell migration, and modulation of nuclear receptor responsiveness. It is very encouraging that artemisinin and its derivatives are anticipated to be a novel class of broad-spectrum antitumor agents based on efficacy and safety. This review aims to highlight these achievements and propose potential strategies to develop artemisinin and its derivatives as a new class of cancer therapeutic agents.
Keywords: Artemisinin; Cancer; Cell lines; Combination therapy; Flavonoids; Transgenics.