Power to see-Drivers of aerobic glycolysis in the mammalian retina: A review

Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2020 Nov;48(8):1057-1071. doi: 10.1111/ceo.13833. Epub 2020 Aug 16.


The mammalian retina converts most glucose to lactate rather than catabolizing it completely to carbon dioxide via oxidative phosphorylation, despite the availability of oxygen. This unusual metabolism is known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect. Molecules and pathways that drive aerobic glycolysis have been identified and thoroughly studied in the context of cancer but remain relatively poorly understood in the retina. Here, we review recent research on the molecular mechanisms that underly aerobic glycolysis in the retina, focusing on key glycolytic enzymes including hexokinase 2 (HK2), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA). We also discuss the potential involvement of cell signalling and transcriptional pathways including phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signalling, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), which have been implicated in driving aerobic glycolysis in the context of cancer.

Keywords: biochemistry; metabolism; retina.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Glycolysis*
  • Oxidative Phosphorylation
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases*
  • Pyruvate Kinase / metabolism
  • Retina / metabolism


  • Pyruvate Kinase