The Impact of Performing a 3D Mapping Biopsy Prior to Primary Cryotherapy for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

Urology. 2020 Oct;144:171-176. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2020.07.012. Epub 2020 Jul 23.


Objective: To study the implications of adding a 3D mapping biopsy (3DMB) prior to prostate cryotherapy (PCT) for the treatment of prostate cancer on the following outcomes: recurrence and biochemical failure (BCF), quality of life outcomes, and complication rates.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients treated with either targeted focal therapy, or subtotal CT for localized prostate cancer was performed. The cohort was stratified by patients who had only had a transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS) and those who had undergone 1 additional 3DMB before definitive treatment. Pre- and postprocedural Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) surveys were collected. BCF was defined using the Phoenix criteria. Patients with BCF were re-biopsied. Differences in pre/post changes in IPSS and SHIM scores were examined with Mann-Whitney U tests, binary measures with chi-square tests, and pre/post changes in PSA with t tests. A Kaplan-Meier time to BCF and recurrence analysis is presented.

Results: A total of 534 patients underwent PCT following TRUS only (n = 331) and TRUS with subsequent 3DMB (n = 203) between March 2007 and June 2016. No differences were observed in IPSS (P = .60) or SHIM scores drop (P = .06) between groups. PSA drop seemed more pronounced in the TRUS only biopsy group compared to the 3DMB, but again without statistical significance (P = .06). Recurrence rate and BCF were lower in the 3DMB group (P <.01). There was a higher rate of short-term complications detected in the TRUS only group (P = .02).

Conclusion: BCF and local recurrence rates were lower among patients who underwent a confirmatory 3DMB before PCT, most likely due to better risk stratification in these patients. The addition of a 3DMB did not seem to adversely impact either rate of complications or functional outcomes.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cryotherapy*
  • Humans
  • Image-Guided Biopsy / methods
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional*
  • Kallikreins / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / blood
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology*
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control
  • Prostate / diagnostic imaging
  • Prostate / pathology*
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Quality of Life
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ultrasonography, Interventional


  • KLK3 protein, human
  • Kallikreins
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen