Atomoxetine (ATX), a selective and potent inhibitor of the presynaptic norepinephrine transporter, is used mainly to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although multiple adverse effects associated with ATX have been reported including severe liver injuries, the mechanisms of ATX-related toxicity remain largely unknown. Metabolism frequently contributes to adverse effects of a drug through reactive metabolites, and the bioactivation status of ATX is still not investigated yet. Here, we systematically investigated ATX metabolism, bioactivation, species difference in human, mouse, and rat liver microsomes (HLM, MLM, and RLM) and in mice using metabolomic approaches as mice and rats are commonly used animal models for the studies of drug toxicity. We identified thirty one ATX metabolites and adducts in LMs and mice, 16 of which are novel. In LMs, we uncovered two methoxyamine-trapped aldehydes, two cyclization metabolites, detoluene-ATX, and ATX-N-hydroxylation for the first time. Detoluene-ATX and one cyclization metabolite were also observed in mice. Using chemical inhibitors and recombinant CYP enzymes, we demonstrated that CYP2C8 and CYP2B6 mainly contribute to the formation of aldehyde; CYP2D6 is the dominant enzyme for the formation of ATX cyclization and detoluene-ATX; CYP3A4 is major enzyme responsible for the hydroxylamine formation. The findings concerning aldehydes should be very useful to further elucidate the mechanistic aspects of adverse effects associated with ATX from metabolic angles. Additionally, the species differences for each metabolite should be helpful to investigate the contribution of specific metabolites to ATX toxicity and possible drug-drug interactions in suitable models.
Keywords: Aldehyde; Atomoxetine; Cyclization; Hydroxylamine; Metabolomics.
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