Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) for multiple myeloma (MM), with its underlying graft-versus-tumor capacity, is a potentially curative approach for high-risk patients. Relapse is the main cause of treatment failure, but predictors for postrelapse survival are not well characterized. We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate predictors for postrelapse overall survival (OS) in 60 MM patients who progressed after myeloablative T cell-depleted alloHCT. The median patient age was 56 years, and 82% had high-risk cytogenetics. Patients received a median of 4 lines of therapy pre-HCT, and 88% achieved at least a partial response (PR) before alloHCT. Of the 38% who received preemptive post-HCT therapy, 13 received donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) and 10 received other interventions. Relapse was defined as very early (<6 months; 28%), early (6 to 24 months; 50%), or late (>24 months; 22%). At relapse, 27% presented with extramedullary disease (EMD). The median postrelapse overall survival (OS) by time to relapse was 4 months for the very early relapse group, 17 months for the early relapse group, and 72 months for the late relapse group (P = .002). Older age, relapse with EMD, <PR before alloHCT, <PR by day +100, and no maintenance were prognostic for inferior postrelapse OS on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis adjusted for age and sex, very early relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 4.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42 to 13.5), relapse with EMD (HR, 5.20; 95% CI, 2.10 to 12.9), and DLI for relapse prevention (HR, .11; 95% CI, 2.10 to 12.9) were significant predictors for postrelapse survival. Despite their shared inherent high-risk status, patients with MM have significantly disparate post-HCT relapse courses, with some demonstrating long-term survival despite relapse.
Keywords: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; CD34(+) selection; Donor lymphocyte infusion; Multiple myeloma; Relapse; T cell depletion.
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