Tubular changes contribute to the development of renal pathologies in diabetic kidney disease (DKD), including interstitial fibrosis. It is unclear how tubular cells relay signals to interstitial fibroblasts. Recently, exosomes have been recognized as crucial mediators of intercellular communication. We hypothesized that exosomes secreted from tubular cells may stimulate fibroblasts for interstitial fibrosis in DKD. In this study, we isolated and purified exosomes from the renal cortex of DKD mice and high glucose-treated mouse proximal tubular cells. Compared with nondiabetic mice, exosome secretion in kidney tissues decreased in DKD mice. Likewise, high glucose incubation reduced exosome secretion in mouse kidney proximal tubular BUMPT cells. To study the effect of tubular cell exosomes on fibroblasts, exosomes from BUMPT cells were added to renal fibroblast NRK-49F cell cultures. Notably, exosomes from high glucose conditioned BUMPT cells induced higher proliferation, significant morphological change, and substantial production of fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and collagen type Ι in NRK-49F fibroblasts. Proteomics analysis was further performed to profile the proteins within tubular cell exosomes. Interestingly, 22 proteins were found to be differentially expressed between tubular exosomes derived from high glucose conditioned cells and those from normal glucose conditioned cells. Cytoscape analysis suggested the existence of two protein-protein interaction networks in these exosomal differentially expressed proteins. While one of the protein-protein interaction networks comprised enolase 1 (Eno1), heat shock protein family A member 8 (Hspa8), thioredoxin 1 (Txn1), peptidylprolyl isomerase A (Ppia), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (Pgk1), DNA topoisomerase II-β (Top2b), and β-actin (Actb), the other had the family proteins of human leucocyte antigen F (Ywhag), a component of the ND10 nuclear body (Ywhae), interferon regulatory factor-8 (Ywhaq), and human leucocyte antigen A (Ywhaz). Gene expression analysis via Nephroseq showed a correlation of Eno1 expression with DKD clinical manifestation. In conclusion, DKD is associated with a decrease in exosome secretion in renal tubular cells. Exosomes from high glucose conditioned tubular cells may regulate the proliferation and activation of fibroblasts, contributing to the paracrine signaling mechanism responsible for the pathological onset of renal interstitial fibrosis in DKD.
Keywords: diabetic kidney disease; exosome; renal fibrosis; tubular injury.